## Mind Benders Critical Thinking Worksheets For Teens

**Good Mathematical Habits for Young Adolescents**

Mathematics content is best learned in a way that fosters good habits of mathematical thinking. The Common Core State Standards in Mathematics (www.corestandards.org) supplement their K-12 standards for content with eight standards for mathematical practice:

- Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
- Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
- Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.
- Model with mathematics.
- Use appropriate tools strategically.
- Attend to precision.
- Look for and make use of structure.
- Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning. These mathematical practices, and how they relate to content, mean very different things depending upon student age.

## Middle School as a Critical Transition Period

The middle school years mark a critical transition in a child’s cognitive development – how a child thinks and learns. Generally at age 11 or 12 children enter the fourth and final stage in Piaget’s four stages of cognitive development, called the formal operational stage. During this time children show significant growth in their ability to think abstractly, use advanced reasoning skills, make hypotheses and inferences, and draw logical conclusions. Ideally, the middle school years provide educators with new opportunities to foster good thinking habits and mathematical practices.

## The Balance Between Mathematical Content and Practice

Students begin middle school exposed to mathematics as a very broad subject covering a wide array of topics: 2D geometry, probability, percentages, number theory, logic, patterns, statistics, graphing, number operations, proportions, elementary algebra, 3D geometry, and so on. They finish middle school and begin high school usually embarking on year-long studies of content-intensive mathematical subject areas: a year of Algebra 1, then a year of Geometry, then a year of Algebra 2, and so on. Though young adolescents begin middle school ready to think with more power, creativity, and independence, the accompanying increase in content expectations means that a balance between mathematical content and practice can be difficult to achieve. Developing good thinking and learning habits requires investment of time and patience, and well-intended educators can be drawn away from quality mathematical practices when the drive to learn content becomes too formidable.

## Committing to Critical Thinking at the Middle School Level

Content can be learned in ways that ask young adolescents to harness and develop their new cognitive abilities. For example, a traditional 2D geometry question might ask:

*Calculate the perimeter and area of a rectangle with a 15-inch length and a 9-inch width. *

This question can be answered by performing a routine calculation using formulas for the perimeter and area of a rectangle. Similar content can be studied with a question that asks for critical thinking:

*For what whole number values of length and width will the rectangle have an area of 60 square yards and a perimeter of 38 yards? *

This second question (from Mathematical Reasoning™ Middle School Supplement) requires students to develop a strategy to construct a solution. Indeed, a common approach involves making a mental or physical list of pairs of whole numbers that multiply to 60 and then searching for the pair of numbers that add up to 19 (since a rectangle’s perimeter is twice the sum of the length and width). The correct answer is a length of 15 inches and a width of 4 inches (assigning the larger number to length). Note the depth and value of a critical thinking opportunity: the solution strategy connects 2D geometry with the number theory technique of factoring and is a precursor to a more sophisticated factoring procedure used in Algebra 1. The second question requires greater time investment than the first question, but is worth the extra time if one is committed to young adolescents learning content in a way that fully engages their reasoning skills.

## Fostering Perseverance

The first Common Core mathematical practice standard emphasizes the need to have students make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. The most important ingredient in Polya’s classic four-step problem solving strategy is the act of making decisions, as opposed to simply applying an algorithm that has been instructed. Young adolescent reaction to problem solving and decision making can be decidedly mixed. On the one hand, playing an active role in the solution process – figuring something out and being creative – can be fun, exciting, sometimes even addicting for young minds that are ready to be engaged. However, overcoming obstacles and persevering with a task that requires multiple steps and authentic reasoning can also sometimes be discouraging for early adolescent brains just learning how to tap into their emerging powers. The frustration level can depend on the difficulty level of the problem-solving situation, and a common, safe path is to keep decision making and creative expectations down to a minimum. However, if mathematics education in the United States is to reach a higher standard against a worldwide benchmark, children must be encouraged to persevere with critical thinking and decision making, to embrace both the excitement and occasional frustration of authentic reasoning and creativity.

## Enrichment Activities to Stimulate Critical Thinking

The Critical Thinking Co.™ specializes in activities that stimulate use of reasoning skills and creativity when learning content. These enrichment activities challenge students to make decisions and construct solutions – to play an active role when learning content. Variety is favored over repetition, although care is taken to have common themes emphasized and connections reinforced. Presentation is often graphic intensive, resulting in visual appeal to young eyes. Real-world applications are easily identifiable. Problem-solving is supported with clear, comprehensive solutions and explanations. An example is provided with the activity sets Dimension Detective and Linear Patterns and accompanying solution pages from Mathematical Reasoning™ Middle School Supplement. In Dimension Detective students deduce missing dimensions for a variety of geometric shapes by using proportional reasoning, number theory ideas, and connections between 2D and 3D shapes. In Linear Patterns students determine number patterns and geometric patterns, and then deduce algebraic expressions to describe these patterns (a precursor to creating algebraic equations to describe linear graphs). Each activity set is accompanied by needed math facts, strategy tips, and comprehensive solutions that teachers and parents can use to help support student investigations. These sorts of enrichment activities provide middle school students with an opportunity to explore mathematical content, create or reinforce ideas, make connections, and use abstract reasoning. Young adolescents have emerging cognitive powers to accompany their rapid physical growth, and math enrichment can provide middle school students with appealing opportunities to use their maturing reasoning skills.

**Free Printable Math Worksheets for Grades 6-9**

Visit our product pages to find hundreds more free printable activities.

**Award-Winning Math Books for Middle School Students**

Here's what some of *our customers* have said regarding the use of *The Critical Thinking Co.™* math products for middle school enrichment.

"*Mathematical Reasoning* presents math in a way that makes it not only simple to learn, but also practical to apply to everyday circumstance (obviously making math more meaningful to him)." - Katherine, Mississippi

"My son hated math. I saw your curriculum and gave it a try. Wow, what a great fit for my son! Your *Mathematical Reasoning* curriculum gave him a way to learn math that made sense to him. Thank you!" - Amy, Ontario, Canada

"Critical Thinking has uniquely captured the method of teaching students not only how to think logically, but to apply logic to the process of learning in every subject area. [M]any companies have begun to jump on the bandwagon and produce materials that use the critical thinking label, but the contents are the same old drill and practice, and our students know the difference right away. - Peggy, educator, Tucson, AZ

"For 12 years, I've recommended your company to my teacher-training students. Your materials are exceptionally valuable to teachers. Critical Thinking not only produces quality materials, but your fine company is unusually responsive to needs and questions of the individual teacher as well as of the big school districts." - Dr. Leonard Martin, Teacher Education Program, University of Denver

** Welcome to Education World's Work Sheet Library. In this section of our library, we present more than 100 ready-to-print student work sheets organized by grade level. Click on a grade level folder below to find a library of work sheets that you can use with your students to build a wide variety of critical thinking skills. All the work sheets in this library were provided to Education World by our partners at CriticalThinking.com. Click on the small banner advertisement above for a complete catalog of CriticalThinking.com teacher-ready activities.) **

Visit Education World's Work Sheet Library for a wide variety of free printables for use across the curriculum and across the grades.

**Geometry**

Students will love this analytical sheet. (Grafes 6-8)

**Mathmatical Reasoning**

Taky your expectations to the next level. (Grades 6-8)

**Balance Benders**

Given certain facts, which objects weight will even off the scales? (Grades 6-8)

**Balance Benders (#2)**

Given certain facts, which objects weight will even off the scales? (Grades 6-8)

**Matching Figures: Figural Similarities**

Among four similar figures, which two are exactly alike? (Grades 6-8)

**Verbal Similarities and Differences: Antonyms**

Which of the three words means the opposite of the first word in the line? (Grades 6-8)

**Oh, Fur Goodness Sake!**

Read the true story. Then make an inference based on the evidence in the story. (Grades 6-8)

**Obie One, Obie Two**

Read the true story. Then make an inference based on the evidence in the story. (Grades 6-8)

**Quit That Rockin**

Read the true story. Then make an inference based on the evidence in the story. (Grades 6-8)

**Do Size, Shape, or Weight Make a Difference?**

High density objects fall at about the same rate of speed regardless of size, shape, or weight. (Grades 6-8)

**Rhyme and Reason (#1)**

Can you figure out the subjects of these simple rhymes? (Grades 6-8)

**Rhyme and Reason (#2)**

Can you figure out the subjects of these simple rhymes? (Grades 6-8)

**Rhyme and Reason (#3)**

Can you figure out the subjects of these simple rhymes? (Grades 6-8)

**Uses of Peanut Oil**

Find the 10 errors in this brief article. (Grades 6-8)

**The Missing Cookie Caper**

Find the 10 errors in this brief article. (Grades 6-8)

**Temperature Tale of Two Cities**

Study the temperature graph. Use it to fill out the temperature charts. (Grades 6-8)

**The Roberts Family Reunion**

Be a math detective: use clues in the story to answer the questions. (Grades 6-8)

**The Amazing Mayans**

The story and diagrams help you learn about a Mayan number system. (Grades 6-8)

**Who Works Where?**

Use the clues to match each womans name with her kind of work. (Grades 6-8)

**Married People**

Use the clues to figure out what last name goes with each persons first name. (Grades 6-8)

**Ice Cream**

Use the clues to figure out each persons favorite flavor. (Grades 6-8)

**Picnic in the Park**

Use the clues to figure out the peoples full names and what they brought to eat. (Grades 6-8)

**Alls Fair in Science**

Use the information to figure out which science fair project each kid did. (Grades 6-8)

**Unusual Animals**

Use the clues to figure out what makes these animals unique. (Grades 6-8)

**Career Women**

Use the clues to figure out each womans job and her income. (Grades 6-8)

**Novel Thinking: Charlie and the Chocolate Factory**

Use the vocabulary words to complete the crossword puzzle. (Grades 6-8)

**Novel Thinking: Charlottes Web**

Draw a line from each important event to the detail that tells more about it. (Grades 6-8)

**Novel Thinking: Georges Marvelous Medicine**

Use the clue to help you unscramble each vocabulary word. (Grades 6-8)

**Novel Thinking: Shiloh**

Use the vocabulary words and definitions to help you fill in the puzzle. (Grades 6-8)

**Novel Thinking: In Their Own Words: Abraham Lincoln**

Write a vocabulary word and its part of speech next to each definition. (Grades 6-8)

**Defining Geometry**

Use evidence presented in the passage to answer each of the questions. (Grades 6-8)

**Galileos Vision**

Use evidence presented in the passage to answer each of the questions. (Grades 6-8)

**Foods as Medicine**

Use evidence presented in the passage to answer each of the questions. (Grades 6-8)

**Invertebrates**

Use information in the story to answer the questions and complete the diagrams. (Grades 6-8)

**Earth Materials and Their Uses**

Use information in the story to answer the questions and complete the flow chart. (Grades 6-8)

**Algebra, Exponents, and Using Formulas**

Figure out which number or letter should replace each of the question marks. (Grades 6-8)

**Think Quick!**

Three fun math challenges from Dr. Funster. (Grades 6-8)

**Matrix Fill-Up**

Fill in each box with a word that begins with the letter indicated and belongs under the heading. (Grades 6-8)

**Skating Party**

Use the clues to enter the correct digits in the puzzle. (Grades 6-8)

**Table Logic**

Use the clues to write the name of each person at the place he or she is seated. (Grades 6-8)

**Root Words: geo and More**

Use the word root chart to help you match each words to its meaning. (Grades 6-8)

**Word Meaning Worksheet**

Use what you know about word roots -- or your dictionary -- to complete this matching activity. (Grades 6-8)

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