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Reference List 3 Authors Bibliography

APA: General

General Rules for APA Format

Author Rules:

Authors should be alphabetized by the last name of the first author of each work. If you want to cite multiple articles by the same author, list entries in chronological order from earliest to most recent.

Works With No Authors

If there is no author given, begin your citation with the name of the primary source/article.


Global Warming. (2006). San Diego: Greenhaven Press.

Citing One Author

When citing authors, use the last name followed by the first initial and middle initial (if given).


Last, F. M.


Dickens, C.

Citing Two Authors

If you are citing more than one author, separate the authors by commas alphabetically. The first author should have their last name, first name and the additional authors should be cited simply with their first and last name.


Last, F. M., Last, F. M., Last, F. M., Last, F. M., Last, F. M., Last, F. M., et al.

Citing More Than Six Authors

If there are more than six authors, cite the first six and then write "et al."


Dickens, C. & Bellow, S.

Author as an Organization

Write the organization as the author.


New York State Association of Counties. (2009).

Contributor Rules


Sometimes the main contributor is not an author, but another contributor type, such as an editor or conductor. Follow the contributor by an abbreviation of the contributor type (i.e. Ed. or Cond.).

  • One editor:

    Smith, J. K. (Ed.). (Date). Title.

  • One conductor:

    Smith, J. K. (Cond). (Date). Title.

Note: If plural, then change the abbreviation accordingly.

  • Two editors:

    Smith, J. K., & Sampson, T. (Eds.). (Date). Title.

Date Rules

For a book

  • Place the year published information after the author information.

    Example: Bellow, S. (1999).

  • If there is no author, place the year published after the edition.

    Example: The Catcher in the Rye (1st ed.). (1951). Boston, MA: Little, Brown.

  • If the author information or edition/page number are not given, place the year published after the title of the piece.

    Example: The Catcher in the Rye. (1951). Boston, MA: Little, Brown.

Page Rules

  • Refer to a page with a "p."

    Example: p. 1

  • Numerous pages with a "pp."

    Example: pp.1-5

Style Rules

  • Italicize longer works including books and journals.
  • Do not italicize, underline, or put quotes around titles of short works, including journal articles or essays in edited collections.

Web Rules


APA 6 recommends to only cite the homepage URL, and only the exact URL if the page is not properly indexed or easy to find from the homepage. For blog posts, user contributed content, and discussion forums, APA 6 recommends including the exact URL.

Date Retrieved:

APA 6 recommends including it only if the source material may change over time. Also keep in mind that you can use "Available from" instead of "Retrieved from" when the URL leads to information on how to obtain the cited material rather than to the material itself.


If an article has a digital object identifier (DOI) number, you need only the DOI number, and no URL or retrieval date.

Sources Published Directly Online

Citing an Article from an Online Only Resource


Freidland, L. (2008, September 22). Top 10 natural and wildlife adventure travel trips. Retrieved from http://adventuretravel.about.com.

Citing an Entire Website with no Identifiable Electronic Publication Date


EasyBib.com. (n.d.). Retrieved June 22, 2009, from http://www.easybib.com

Citing an Article from an Online Only News Source


Chen, S. (2009, May 7). Growing up is hard with mom in prison. CNN. Retrieved http://www.cnn.com

Citing an Article from an Online Newspaper


Shorto, R. (2009, April 29). Going Dutch. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com


When citing online sources in APA, generally follow the same structure of its in print equivalent, and then follow this information with the date of access and the URL.

Citing an Online Only Journal


Glotzer, R., & Federlein, A. (2007). Miles that bind: Commuter marriage and family strength. Michigan Family Review, 12, 7-31. Retrieved June 22, 2009, from http://quod.lib.umich.edu/cgi/t/text/textidx?c=mfr;cc=mfr;q1=Miles%20that%20Bind;rgn=main;view=text;idno=4919087.0012.102


The above example has a poorly indexed URL and the material may change over time. Hence the URL is included.

Citing a Journal Article With a Digital Object Identifier


Oakley, R. (2004). How the mind hurts and heals the body.American Psychologist, 12(1), 25-47. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.59.1.29.

Citing an Online-Only book


Eckel, B. (n.d.). Thinking in Java (3rd ed.). Retrieved from http://www.bruceeckel.com


Artist Last, First M. "Track Name." Recorded Month Date, Year. In Album Name By Writer First M. Last. Cond. Conductor First M. Last. Orch. First M. Last. Perf. First M. Last. Band/Group Name. Rec. Date Month Year. Producer First M. Last, Year. CD/MP3, MIDI, Cassette/Vinyl.


Lady Gaga Born This Way Rec. 2011. Vincent Herbert, 2011. CD.

Web Rules


Contributors. "Title." Website. Edition. Website Publisher, Date. Web. Date Accessed.

Sources Published Directly Online

Citing an Article from an Online Only Resource


Friedland, Lois. "Top 10 Natural and Wildlife Adventure Travel Tips." About.com New York Times Company, 22 Sept. 2008. Web. 25 Sept. 2008.

Citing an Entire Website with No Identifiable Electronic Publication Date


EasyBib.com ImagineEasy Solutions, n.d. Web. 8 May 2009.


Newspaper and magazine websites are considered non-periodical, directly published online sources even if they have in-print copies. Follow the published directly online format.

Citing an Article from an Online Only News Source


Chen, Stephanie. "Growing up is Hard with Mom in Prison." CNN.com Cable News Network, 7 May 2009. Web. 8 May 2009.

Citing an Article from an Online Newspaper


Shorto, Russell. "Going Dutch." New York Times New York Times, 3 May 2009. Web. 8 May 2009.

Citing an Online Only Journal


Glotzer, Richard and Anne Federlein. "Miles that Blind: Commuter Marriage and Family Strength." Michigan Family Review 12 (2007): 7-31. Web. 8 Apr. 2009.

Personal Website


Last name, First name. Page Cited. Web. Date Accessed.


Smith, Steve. Home Page. Web. 3 January 2013.

Publication information:

Sources Published Indirectly Online

As opposed to some sources published directly online (by a website), other sources may be originally in print, or in another medium, and found online. Cite these sources as you would in their original form, and then add the relevant web information (date accessed and URL).

Citing a Book Originally in Print Found Online


Catton, B. (2005). The Civil War. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Retrieved from http://www.books.google.com

Citing a Newsletter Found Online With No Page Information


Puzzanchera, C. (2009, April). Juvenile arrests 2007. Juvenile Justice Bulletin. Retrieved from http://www.ncjrs.gov.

Citing a Video Found Online


West, K. (2009). Amazing [Online Video]. Roc-A-Fella Records. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=at4OQvNlxSw.


Because this is from a website with user generated content, the exact URL is included, instead of the homepage.

Citing a Painting Viewed Online


Picasso, P. (1921). Three musicians [Painting found in Museum of Modern Art, New York]. Retrieved from http://www.artquotes.net

Citing a Blog Post


Schonfled, E. (2009, September 13). Shutterfly buys Tiny Pictures for a tiny price. TechCrunch. Retrieved from http://www.techcrunch.com


Because blog posts are informally published, do not italicize the article titles.

Citing an Originally in Print Journal Article Found in a Database


Ahn, H., & Kim, K. (2008). Using genetic algorithms to optimize nearest neighbors for data mining. Annals of Operations Research, 263(1), 5-18. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier.


Sources found in online Databases typically have been published elsewhere. Include as much as the original publication information as possible.

Reference List: Author/Authors


APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 6th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page. For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6th ed., 2nd printing).

Contributors: Joshua M. Paiz, Elizabeth Angeli, Jodi Wagner, Elena Lawrick, Kristen Moore, Michael Anderson, Lars Soderlund, Allen Brizee, Russell Keck
Last Edited: 2018-02-21 02:53:07

The following rules for handling works by a single author or multiple authors apply to all APA-style references in your reference list, regardless of the type of work (book, article, electronic resource, etc.).

Single Author

Last name first, followed by author initials.

Berndt, T. J. (2002). Friendship quality and social development. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11, 7-10.

Two Authors

List by their last names and initials. Use the ampersand instead of "and."

Wegener, D. T., & Petty, R. E. (1994). Mood management across affective states: The hedonic contingency hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, 1034-1048.

Three to Seven Authors

List by last names and initials; commas separate author names, while the last author name is preceded again by ampersand.

Kernis, M. H., Cornell, D. P., Sun, C. R., Berry, A., Harlow, T., & Bach, J. S. (1993). There's more to self-esteem than whether it is high or low: The importance of stability of self-esteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 1190-1204.

More Than Seven Authors

List by last names and initials; commas separate author names. After the sixth author's name, use an ellipses in place of the author names. Then provide the final author name. There should be no more than seven names. 

Miller, F. H., Choi, M. J., Angeli, L. L., Harland, A. A., Stamos, J. A., Thomas, S. T., . . . Rubin, L. H. (2009). Web site usability for the blind and low-vision user. Technical Communication, 57, 323-335.

Organization as Author

American Psychological Association. (2003).

Unknown Author

Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary (10th ed.). (1993). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.

NOTE: When your essay includes parenthetical citations of sources with no author named, use a shortened version of the source's title instead of an author's name. Use quotation marks and italics as appropriate. For example, parenthetical citations of the source above would appear as follows: (Merriam-Webster's, 1993).

Two or More Works by the Same Author

Use the author's name for all entries and list the entries by the year (earliest comes first).

Berndt, T. J. (1981).

Berndt, T. J. (1999).

When an author appears both as a sole author and, in another citation, as the first author of a group, list the one-author entries first.

Berndt, T. J. (1999). Friends' influence on students' adjustment to school. Educational Psychologist, 34, 15-28.

Berndt, T. J., & Keefe, K. (1995). Friends' influence on adolescents' adjustment to school. Child Development, 66, 1312-1329.

References that have the same first author and different second and/or third authors are arranged alphabetically by the last name of the second author, or the last name of the third if the first and second authors are the same.

Wegener, D. T., Kerr, N. L., Fleming, M. A., & Petty, R. E. (2000). Flexible corrections of juror judgments: Implications for jury instructions. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 6, 629-654.

Wegener, D. T., Petty, R. E., & Klein, D. J. (1994). Effects of mood on high elaboration attitude change: The mediating role of likelihood judgments. European Journal of Social Psychology, 24, 25-43.

Two or More Works by the Same Author in the Same Year

If you are using more than one reference by the same author (or the same group of authors listed in the same order) published in the same year, organize them in the reference list alphabetically by the title of the article or chapter. Then assign letter suffixes to the year. Refer to these sources in your essay as they appear in your reference list, e.g.: "Berdnt (1981a) makes similar claims..."

Berndt, T. J. (1981a). Age changes and changes over time in prosocial intentions and behavior between friends. Developmental Psychology, 17, 408-416.

Berndt, T. J. (1981b). Effects of friendship on prosocial intentions and behavior. Child Development, 52, 636-643.

Introductions, Prefaces, Forewords, and Afterwords

Cite the publishing information about a book as usual, but cite Introduction, Preface, Foreword, or Afterword (whatever title is applicable) as the chapter of the book.

Funk, R., & Kolln, M. (1998). Introduction. In E. W. Ludlow (Ed.), Understanding English grammar (pp. 1-2). Needham, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

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